Download:

PDF

Keywords: storyteller, Kalmyk fairy tales, hero, opponent, physical violence, repository of the soul
For citation:

Elbikova B.V. Physical Destruction of the Enemy in Kalmyk Fairy Tales “Sedklin Arvn Bolg” (Memorized Twelve Chapters) by M. Burinov. Studia Litterarum, 2019, vol. 4, no 3, pp. 352–369. (In Russ.)

DOI: 10.22455/2500-4247-2019-4-3-352-369

Author: Balzira V. Elbikova
Information about the author:

Balzira V. Elbikova, researcher of the International Scientific Centre “Cultural Heritage of Mongolian Peoples,” Kalmyk State University, Pushkin St. 11, 358000 Elista, Russia. ORCID ID: 0000-0002-1491-9961

E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Received: March 11, 2019
Published: September 25, 2019
Issue: 2019 Vol. 4, №3
Department: Folklore Sudies
Pages: 352-369
DOI: 10.22455/2500-4247-2019-4-3-352-369
UDK: 398
BBK: 82.3(=64)

Abstract

The article discusses different modes of physical destruction of the enemy or malicious character as represented in Kalmyk fairy-tale folklore: chopping, burning, destroying the body, exterminating the soul, and sewing into the skin. While the mentioned modes are typically performed by the folklore hero on his enemy, the latter form of violence – sewing into the skin – equally refers to both the hero and his enemy. The study is based on the analysis of Kalmyk fairy tales “Sedklin arvn heir bulg” (Memorized Twelve Chapters) belonging to the repertoire of the storyteller M. Burinov. The article observes that the multiple process of destroying an adversary’s body (chopping, grinding, or burning) in Kalmyk fairy tale is associated with his physical “non-return” to society, and the destruction of the soul with the impossibility of its rebirth. By contrast, when the malicious character stiches the hero in the skin and throws him into the ocean, this symbolizes a transfer to the otherworld that does not exclude the hero’s future return in the new form. Stemming from comparative analysis of various descriptions of the physical violence performed on the enemy, the author identifies stylistic elements that characterize M. Burinov’s skills as a storyteller.

References

1 Bakaeva E.P. Buddizm v Kalmykii. Istoriko-etnograficheskie ocherki [Buddhism in Kalmykia. Historical and ethnographic essays]. Elista, Kalmytskoe knizhnoe izdatel’stvo Publ., 1994. 128 p. (In Russ.)

2 Gatsak V.M. Fol’klor — pamiat’ traditsii (Urovni i formy etnopoeticheskoi konstantnosti) [Folklore — memory of tradition (levels and forms of ethnopoetic constancy)]. Vestnik Dagestanskogo nauchnogo tsentra RAN, 2000, no 8, pp. 94–103. (In Russ.) 

3 Gatsak V.M. Ustnaia epicheskaia traditsiia vo vremeni. Istoricheskie issledovaniia v poetiki [Oral epic tradition in time. Historical studies in poetics]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1989. 254 p. (In Russ.)

4 Gatsak V.M. Etnopoeticheskie konstanty v fol’klore: urovni, izoglassy, “mul’timediinye formy” (na slavianskom i neslavianskom materiale) [Literature, culture, and folklore of Slavic peoples. 13th International Congress of Slavists (Ljubljana, August 2003). Proceedings of the Russian delegation]. Moscow, 2003, pp. 311–314. (In Russ.)

5 Zhitetskii I.A. Ocherki byta astrakhanskikh kalmykov: Etnograficheskie nabliudeniia 1884–1886 gg. [Essays on the everyday life and customs of Astrakhan Kalmyks: Ethnographic observations, 1884–1886]. Moscow, Tipografiya V.G. Volchaninova Publ., 1893. 111 p. (In Russ.)

6 Sanzheeva L.Ts. Kul’turnye konstanty v buriatskoi Geseriade: mifologicheskie, religioznye i epicheskie paralleli [Cultural constants in the Buryat Hesariad: mythological, religious, and epic parallels]. Vestnik Buriatskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2013, no 10, pp. 167–170. (In Russ.)

7 Kichikov A.Sh. Geroicheskii epos “Dzhangar”. Sravnitel’no-tipologicheskoe issledovanie pamiatnika [Heroic epic Jangar. Comparative typological study of the work]. Moscow, Vostochnaya literatura Publ., 1997. 320 p. (In Russ.)

8 Sokrovennoe skazanie mongolov. Mongolskaya khronika 1240 g. [The Secret Legend of Mongols. Mongol chronical, 1240]. Мoscow, Leningrad, AN SSSR Publ., 1941. 619 p. (In Russ.)

9 Khabunova E.E. Geroicheskiĭ epos “Dzhangar”: poeticheskie konstanty bogatyrskogo zhiznennogo tsikla (sravnitel’noe izuchenie natsional’nykh versiĭ) [Heroic epos Djangar: poetic constants of the heroic life cycle (comparative study of national versions)]. Rostov-na-Donu, SKNC VSH Publ., 2006. 255 p. (In Russ.)

10 Buutan Sanҗin tuul’s (Skazki Sandzhi Butaeva) [Buutan Sandzhin tuuls (Tales of Sandzhi Butaev)]. Elista, KIGI RAN Publ., 2008. Book 1, introd. by N.G. Ochirova; comp., text preparation and application by B.Kh. Borlykova. 307 p. (In Kalmyk)

11 Sedklin kүr. Iasad, bart beldsn’ Bukshan B. [Sedklin Cur]. Elista, Khal’mg degtr harhach Publ., 1960. 96 p. (In Kalmyk)

12 Khal’mg tuul’s [Halmg tuuls]. I bot’. Elista, Khal’mg degtr һarһach Publ., 1961. 220 p. (In Kalmyk)

13 Khal’mg tuul’c [Halmg tuuls]. II bot’. Elista, Khal’mg degtr һarһach Publ., 1968. 267 p. (In Kalmyk)

14 Roux J.-P. La mort chez les peuples altaiques anciens et medievaux d’apres les documents ecrits. Paris, Adrien-Maisonneuve Publ., 1963. P. 35. (In French)

15 Sárközi A., Sazykin A.G. Calling the Soul of the Dead: Texts of Mongol Folk-Religion in the St. Petersburg Institute of Oriental Studies. Turnhout Publ., 2004. Vol. 1. VIII, 279, XIV p. (Silk Road Studies; 9). (In English)